India is a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of government. The Republic is governed in terms of the Constitution. Sovereignty is shared between the centre and the state government, but the central government is given greater powers. The President is the constitutional head of Executive of the Union. Real executive power vests in a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as head of government. The State resembles the federal system. In the states, the Governor is the head of Executive, but real executive power vests with the Chief Minister who heads the Council of Ministers. The judicial setup of the country is headed by the Chief justice, who presides over one of the largest judicial apparatus dispensing criminal, civil and all other forms of litigation. The government head of its legal wing its the Attorney General of India.
After the national elections are held the President calls the most suitable candidate to form the central government. Normally this candidate is the head of the largest party in the parliament. In case the central gov resigns because of any reason, the President can call the other candidate to form the next gov. The President can also declare, according to govt advice, new elections and if necessary an emergency state. The President has the right to be updated about crucial govt matters and other rights like giving amnesty to prisoners etc. According to the Constitution, elections are to be held once in every five years, unless the parliament dissolves earlier or, on the other hand, a state of emergency is declared, in which case parliament can continue for another year
The Parliament consists of two houses. The Lower House is called the Lok Sabha and the Upper House is called the Rajya Sabha. In the national elections candidates are chosen for the Lower House. The candidates are elected in territorial constituencies. There are 543 territorial constituencies in the country. The Upper House, Rajya Sabha, consists of up to 250 members. Of these members, 230 are elected by state legislatures and about 15 are nominated by the President. Unlike the Lower House, the Upper House cannot be dissolved, but one third of its members resign every two years.
The Upper House, Rajya Sabha, consists of up to 250 members. Of these members 230 are elected by state legislatures and about 15 are nominated by the President. Unlike the Lower House, the Upper House cannot be dissolved, but one third of its members resign every two years. Most of the parliamentary activities, passing laws, no-confidence votes, budget bills, take place in the Lower House of parliament. The Upper House together with the Lower House amends the Constitution. These two Houses together with the state legislatures also elect the President.
The states have their own legislatures. Some states have two Houses and some only one House. The Lower House where most of the legislature activities happen is called the Vidhan Sabha. The state elections are held every five years unless the state governments are dissolved earlier.
The supreme court of India presides over an
identical judicial apparatus in the state, where the
judicial head is the chief justice of the system,
and from the government side the attorney general